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Ecclesiastes

Bible Overview: Ecclesiastes

Ecclesiastes (/ɪˌkliːziˈæstiːz/; Hebrew: קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ, Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or “Writings”). Originally written c. 450–200 BCE, it is also among the canonical Wisdom Books in the Old Testament of most denominations of Christianity. The title Ecclesiastes is a Latin transliteration of the Greek translation of the Hebrew Kohelet, the pseudonym used by the author of the book.

In traditional Jewish texts and throughout church history (up to the 18th and 19th centuries), King Solomon is named as the author, but modern scholars reject this. Textually, the book is the musings of a King of Jerusalem as he relates his experiences and draws lessons from them, often self-critical. The author, who is not named anywhere in the book, or in the whole of the Bible, introduces a “Kohelet” whom he identifies as the son of David (1:1). The author does not use his own “voice” throughout the book again until the final verses (12:9–14), where he gives his own thoughts and summarises what “the Kohelet” has spoken. It emphatically proclaims all the actions of man to be inherently “hevel,” a word meaning “vain”, “futile”, […] as the lives of both wise and foolish men end in death. While Qoheleth clearly endorses wisdom as a means for a well-lived earthly life, he is unable to ascribe eternal meaning to it. In light of this perceived senselessness, he suggests that one should enjoy the simple pleasures of daily life such as eating, drinking, and taking enjoyment in one’s work, which are gifts from the hand of God. The book concludes with the injunction: “Fear God, and keep his commandments; for that is the whole duty of everyone” (12:13).

Source: youtube @The Bible Project and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecclesiastes

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哈巴谷書 Habakkuk

哈巴谷書

哈巴谷書 Habakkuk 主要内容哈巴谷書分為三章。頭兩章是執筆者與耶和華之間的對話,一方面論及迦勒底人的勢力,同時指出巴比倫帝國增添不屬自己的財物,為本家積聚不義之財,以人血建城及崇拜雕刻的偶像,因此必自招滅亡。第三章描述耶和華在大日子的爭戰時所顯的威榮。這章的寫作風格慷慨激昂,生動有力。它是一篇以輓歌為體裁的禱告且被譽為“希伯來詩歌中最優美壯麗的作品之一”。[1] 預言者呼求耶和華(覆盖哈巴谷书1:1-2:1)猶大地充滿不信的惡行,這一切事令哈巴谷滿腹疑團。“耶和華啊!我呼求你,你不應允,要到幾時呢?”他問道:“你為何使……毁滅和强暴在我面前?”(哈巴谷书1:2,3)法紀鬆弛,惡人圍困義人,公理顛倒。有鑑於此,耶和華必施行奇事,以致“雖有人告訴[他]們,[他]們總是不信”。事實上,他要“興起迦勒底人”!耶和華那描述這個殘暴國家的異象確實駭人聽聞。這一切事都必迅速發生。這個國家慣行强暴,將擄掠的人聚集,“多如塵沙”。(哈巴谷书1:5,6,9)它訕笑君王,嘲笑首領。它無堅不摧,攻取堡壘。這一切都是為了執行“聖者”耶和華的審判和刑罰。(哈巴谷书1:12)哈巴谷耐心等候上帝發言。 五禍的異象(覆盖哈巴谷书2:2-20)耶和華回答説:“將這默示明明地寫在版上。”雖然事情看來遲延,至終必然成就。耶和華以這句話安慰哈巴谷:“惟義人因信得生。”(哈巴谷书2:2,4)狂妄自大的仇敵即使把萬國萬民都招聚到自己手下,他的惡謀也必不得逞。事實上,他所招聚的人必親自提説攻擊他的五禍: “禍哉!迦勒底人,你增添不屬自己的財物。”他自己必被擄掠。他會被搶奪,“因[他]……殺人流血,向……城中一切居民施行强暴。”(哈巴谷书2:6,8)“為本家積蓄不義之財……的有禍了!”由於他剪除多國的民,以致牆裏的石頭,房內的棟梁也必呼叫。(哈巴谷书2:9)耶和華宣告説:“以人血建城……的有禍了!”他百姓勞碌得來的必被火焚燒,化為烏有。“認識耶和華榮耀的知識要充滿遍地,好像水充滿洋海一般。”(哈巴谷书2:12,14。)‘在怒中使同伴喝醉,好看見他下體的有禍了!’耶和華必使他喝他右手的杯,使他滿受羞辱,不得榮耀,“因[他]殺人流血,……向……城中一切居民施行强暴。”雕刻的偶像對造他的人有甚麽益處呢?這些無用的神豈不是啞口無言嗎?(哈巴谷书2:15,17)“對木偶説:醒起!對啞巴石像説:起來!那人有禍了!這個還能教訓人嗎?”耶和華卻與這些沒有生命的神截然不同,他在“聖殿中;全地的人都當在他面前肅敬靜默”。(哈巴谷书2:19,20)耶和華在爭戰之日(覆盖哈巴谷书3:1-19)哈巴谷在嚴肅的禱告裏生動地憶述耶和華大而可畏的作為。耶和華顯現時“榮光遮蔽諸天;頌讚充滿大地。”(哈巴谷书3:3)他的榮光如同白晝,他前面有瘟疫流行。他站立,使大地震動;趕散萬民,使永久的山崩裂。耶和華如大能的戰士策馬揚鞭,坐在救恩的戰車上,弓箭全然顯露。大山深淵都震慄翻騰。日月都在本宮停住,在上帝大發烈怒,通行大地責打列國時,他的箭射出發光,他的槍閃出光芒。他出來要拯救自己的百姓和受膏者,要露出惡人的根基,“直到頸項”。(哈巴谷书3:13) 預言者在異象中目睹耶和華在古時所顯的大能,也見到他在未來震撼世界的活動,這令他感動不已。“我聽見耶和華的聲音,身體戰兢,嘴唇發顫,骨中朽爛;我在所立之處戰兢。我只可安靜等候災難之日臨到,犯境之民上來。”(哈巴谷书3:16)雖然如此,哈巴谷決心無論處境多麽艱難——無花果樹不發旺,葡萄樹不結果,圈中絶了羊——他仍會因耶和華而歡欣,因救他的上帝喜樂。最後他以這段話結束他的極樂之歌:“主耶和華是我的力量;他使我的腳快如母鹿的蹄,又使我穩行在高處。”(哈巴谷书3:19) 來源: zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/哈巴谷書 & BibleProject – Cantonese

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